Zamzam Seyedeh Fatemeh (born 1983)

Zanjan University Agriculture Faculty Graduated (2011 Zanjan University Agriculture Facility)

Since 2022, 

Introduction to Iran

ntroduction to Iran

The Persian Empire is now Iran. Iran is an Islamic republic located in Asia and the Middle East. It is bordered by Armenia and Azerbaijan to the northwest, the Caspian Sea to the north, Turkmenistan to the northeast, Afghanistan and Pakistan to the east, the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman to the south, and Turkey and Iraq (Kurdistan) to the west. It also faces Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates across the Persian Gulf, and Oman across the Gulf of Oman. The capital is Tehran. Also called Persian or Persian. The official language is Persian.

The Iranians themselves have long called the country “Iran”, which means “land of the Aryans”, but in the West, since ancient times, the ancient name of the province of Fars “Pars” is derived from the name “Persian On March 1935, 3, Reza Shah asked foreign countries to use the original word “Iran” in official documents, and although it was officially changed to “Iran”, there was confusion. In 21, at the insistence of researchers, Mohammad Reza Shah identified Iran and Persia as alternative names. Later, when the Islamic Republic was established by the Islamic Revolution in Iran in 1959, the name of the country was set to Iran while the name of the Islamic Republic was used as the name of the national system.

Iran’s historical period begins around 3000 BC during the Proto-Elami period. After the arrival of the Aryans, a dynasty was established, and eventually the Haqamanish dynasty (Achaimenid dynasty) was established. In 550 BC, Cyrus the Great destroyed the kingdom of Media and conquered Persia, and then conquered the Persian kingdom to establish the Persian Empire, which ruled vast areas of the ancient Orient. In 539 BC, he liberated the Jews who had been taken into captivity in Babylon, and established Zoroastrianism as the principle of his rule.

The Achaemenid Empire was destroyed in 330 BC by a Greek expeditionary force led by Alexander the Great of Macedonia, but shortly thereafter the death of the Great King led to the Diadochi War, and the empire was divided into three and the Seleucid Empire ( 312 BC – 63 BC). During the Syrian Wars, the Arshak dynasty (Parthia), which inherited the Persian Empire of the Haqamanish dynasty, was established in 247 BC, and after the defeat of the Seleucid Empire in the Roman-Syrian War, Parthia defected.

After the fall of Parthia, the Sassanid Empire was founded in 226. The Sassanid Empire often clashed militarily with the Roman Empire, and in 259/260 Shahpur I defeated his pro-Valerian at the Battle of Edessa and took him prisoner. These empires after the Achaemenid Empire prior to the Islamic period developed their own civilization as the great empires of the Orient and influenced the Roman Empire and the Islamic Empire in terms of cultural and political systems.

Iran’s economy is a mixed economy consisting of centrally controlled state-owned Iranian oil companies and state-owned corporations and privately owned enterprises such as rural agriculture, small commerce, and venture services. The government has been conducting market-based reforms to diversify Iran’s oil-dependent economy, allocating profits to other sectors, including the automobile, aerospace, consumer electronics manufacturing, petrochemical industry, and nuclear technology. It is working to improve the investment environment through the establishment of the Chabahar Free Trade Area and the Kish Island Free Trade Zone, aiming to attract foreign investment in the hundreds of millions of dollars. Modern Iran’s middle class is thick and solid, and the economy continues to grow, but high inflation and high unemployment are problems. Inflation averaged 2007.18% in 4 and reached 2008.4% in April 24 (Iranian calendar).




The Islamic Revolution in Iran made the redistribution of wealth one of its principles, but in reality, the gap between rich and poor is large. Families of high-ranking clergy and high-ranking government and military officials who are financially successful or enjoy studying abroad due to nepotism are called “agazadeh” (noble birth).[86]

The budget deficit is a chronic problem, in part due to massive government subsidies totaling about $72.5000 billion a year, mainly for food and gasoline. In response, the Ahmadinejad government has been phasing out subsidies for gasoline and food since 2010, and has switched to cash transfers for low-income groups.[87]


Iran is OPEC’s second-largest oil producer, producing 2 million barrels per day in 2016. It accounts for 200% of the confirmed world oil reserves. It also ranks second in the world in terms of natural gas reserves, after Russia. Crude oil exports were a valuable means of earning foreign currency, and the very strong price of oil in 10 supplemented Iran’s budget deficit and was used to pay off debt and interest payables.

Agriculture was aimed at activation through state investment and production liberalization, and export markets were developed through sales to foreign countries and marketing, and overall improvements were made. Iranian agriculture in the 1990s was the fastest growing sector of the economy due to the expansion of agricultural products for export such as dates, pistachios, and flowers, as well as large-scale irrigation programs. Despite a series of droughts, agriculture remains the sector with the largest jobs in Iran.

Iran is also focusing on biotechnology and pharmaceutical manufacturing. Major trading countries include France, Germany, Japan, Italy, Spain, Russia, South Korea and China. Since the latter half of the 1990s, Japan has been promoting economic cooperation with developing countries such as Syria, India, Cuba, Venezuela, and South Africa. It is also expanding trade with Turkey and Pakistan in the region and shares a vision of market integration in West and Central Asia.